??? (Mid-Autumn Festival)

Posted on 15-03-2017

中秋節,月圓人團圓,是東亞的重要傳統民俗節日,每年農曆的八月十五。中秋節不單單是華人的節慶,受中華文化的影響,中秋節也是日本、越南、韓國的傳統節日。
 

 按照中國的農曆,農曆八月為秋季的第二個月,古時稱為仲秋,因此民間稱為中秋,又稱秋夕、八月節、八月半、月夕、月節,又因為這一天月亮滿圓,象徵團圓,又稱為團圓節。中秋一詞,最早見於《周禮》,《禮記·月令》上說:「仲秋之月養衰老,行糜粥飲食。」
  中秋節的傳說,嫦娥奔月的故事最著名。唐朝以後,中秋節才成為固定的節日。傳說楊貴妃夢遊月宮,得到了霓裳羽衣曲,民間才開始盛行過中秋節的習俗。一般認為,中秋節開始盛行於宋朝,到了明清時期,中秋節已經成為中國的一大傳統節日了。
  在許多詠誦中秋節的詩詞中,最為人熟知為宋朝人蘇軾所寫的詞——《水調歌頭》:「明月幾時有?把酒問青天。不知天上宮闕,今夕是何年。我欲乘風歸去,又恐瓊樓玉宇,高處不勝寒。起舞弄清影,何似在人間! 轉朱閣,低綺戶,照無眠。不應有恨,何事長向別時圓?人有悲歡離合,月有陰晴圓缺,此事古難全。但願人長久,千里共嬋娟。」
 
  在中國和台灣,農曆八月十五的中秋節是個重要民俗節日,全國放假一天。一般民眾都會團圓賞月吃月餅、柚子,烤肉。
1980年代中期,台灣開始興起中秋烤肉的習慣,在中秋節當日選擇公園、路邊、海邊或自宅陽台、屋頂等地舉辦烤肉活動。
 
  韓國人的假期表上把「秋夕」的英文寫成為 Thanksgiving Day,因為秋夕在韓國是一個大節日,會一連放三天假。民眾都會利用這段日子回鄉探親。
 
  越南人農曆八月十五過中秋節,稱爲Tết Trung Thu(節中秋。「節」為喃音,「中秋」為漢越音)。當晚,孩子們聆聽關於阿貴的傳說。越南孩子在中秋夜均要提鯉魚燈出遊玩耍,還預示長大「跳龍門」之意。
 
  日本的傳統的中秋節被稱爲十五夜,也叫中秋明月、芋明月、栗明月。但是與中國人在中秋節的時候吃月餅不同,日本人在賞月的時候吃江米糰子,稱為「月見糰子」。由於這個時期正值各種作物的收穫季節,為了對自然的恩惠表示感謝,日本人要舉行各種慶祝活動。日本人也會賞月,稱之為「月見(つきみ)」,屋內會陳列賞月團子(月見団子つきみだんご)、芒草(すすき)、七草(ななくさ)和秋季水果等等。
 

月 餅
Moon Cake

 
  月餅,中國節日禮品和食品。。「月餅」一詞最早見於南宋吳自牧《夢梁錄》中,那時的月餅只是像菱花餅一樣的餅形食物,後來才演變成圓形,寓意團圓美好。明代《西湖遊覽志會》:「八月十五謂之中秋,民間以月餅相饋,取團圓之意。」清代已有詳細記述月餅製作方法的書籍。清楊光輔即寫道:「月餅飽裝桃肉餡,冰淇淋甜砌蔗糖霜」
 
  月餅,為形如滿月的餅,外觀為圓形,表示團圓之意。後來,也有方形或者其他形狀的。月餅外層以小麥粉為皮, 有漿皮、混糖皮、酥皮三大類,餡料多種多樣,口味有甜、鹹、鹹甜、麻辣等。餡心有蛋黃蓮蓉、五仁、豆沙、冰糖、芝麻、火腿、綠茶、水果等。月餅以廣式月餅、蘇式月餅、京式月餅最有名。此外,台式月餅、火腿月餅(雲南)、椒蔥月餅(江西)、薄酥月餅(湖南)、冬瓜月餅(四川)、水晶月餅(陝西)、三白月餅(黑龍江)、海味月餅(山東)、雞絲月餅(清真式)、冰皮月餅(香港)等,也是名品。中秋節吃月餅,和端午節吃粽子、元宵節吃湯圓一樣,是全球華人的傳統風俗。
 
 

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Mid-Autumn Festival
The Moon reunion
-Chrisbella (Christine Ho) 
 


Mid-Autumn Festival, the Moon reunion, East Asia an important traditional folk festival, on August 15 of the lunar calendar. Mid-Autumn Festival is not only the Chinese, influenced by Chinese culture, the traditional Mid-Autumn Festival is Japan, Vietnam, South Korea's festival.

According to the Chinese lunar calendar, the lunar month of August for the first fall in ancient times known as the autumn, so called Mid-folk, also known as Chuseok, Mid-Autumn Festival, August half month evening, May Day, but also because it one day the moon is full circle, symbolizing reunion, also known as the Mid-Autumn Festival. Mid-term, first seen in "Zhou", "Book of Rites order", he said: "May the autumn of support aging line Mi porridge diet."

Mid legend, the story of the most famous Moon. After the Tang Dynasty, Mid-Autumn Festival became a fixed festival. Legend moon sleepwalking Yang got Colourful Plumage, folk began to prevailing custom of Mid-Autumn Festival. Generally believed, Mid-Autumn Festival has become popular in the Song Dynasty, the Ming and Qing dynasties, China's Mid-Autumn Festival has become a major traditional festivals of.

In many chant chant Mid poetry, best known as Sung Su Shi written word - "Thinking of You"?: "Comparative study of wine in the sky do not know the sky palace, Jinxi is what year I want. wind go back, but was afraid Qionglouyuyu, standing above the crowd. Dancing clear shadow, like in the world! turn Zhu Court, low-chi households, according to the sleepless. There should be no hate, to do anything for a long time round? People There are joys and sorrows, month also wanes, the matter ancient difficult wholly. Nung, moon and new moon. "
 
In China and Taiwan, the Lunar August 15 Mid-Autumn Festival is an important folk festival, national holiday. The general public will eat moon cake moon reunion, grapefruit, barbecue.
The mid-1980s, Taiwan began to rise in mid-autumn barbecue habits, Mid-Autumn Festival selection parks, roadside, seaside or barbecue events organized from the house balcony, roof and other places.
 
Korean holiday table on the "Chuseok" is written in English became Thanksgiving Day, because Chuseok in Korea is a big festival, it will put three days off in a row. People will use this day to visit relatives in their hometowns.
 
Vietnamese Lunar August 15 Mid-Autumn Festival, called Tết Trung Thu (Mid-Autumn Festival. "Festival" is Nan tone, "Autumn" as the Chinese and Vietnamese Tone). That night, the children listen to the legend about Aki. Vietnamese children have to mention carp in the autumn light travel to play, also indicates growing up "jump Dragon" was intended.
 
Japan's traditional Mid-Autumn Festival is known as 15 night, also known as the Mid-Autumn moon, the moon taro, chestnut moon. But with the Chinese Mid-Autumn Festival, when people eat moon cake is different from the full moon, when the Japanese eat glutinous rice dumplings, called "month see dumpling." Since this period coincided with the harvest of various crops, in order to express gratitude for the blessings of nature, the Japanese want to hold various celebrations. The Japanese will be the full moon, called the "month see (zu ki late)", the house will be on display to celebrate the dumpling (months see Tuan son zu ki late da san ご), Miscanthus (desu desu ki), seven grass (na na ku sa) and autumn fruits Wait.
 

Moon Cake

 
Moon cake, Chinese holiday gifts and food. . "Moon cake" was first seen in the Southern Song Wuzi Mu "Dream Beam recorded", when the moon cake just like Ryoka cake pie as food, and later evolved into the round, meaning a better reunion. Ming Dynasty, "West Lake Chi will": "August fifteen that of the Mid-Autumn Festival, moon cake folk to phase feed, taking the meaning of reunion." Books in the Qing Dynasty has a detailed account of moon cake production methods. Qing Guang Fu namely wrote: "moon cake full dress peach meat, ice cream, cream sugar sweet puzzle."
 
Moon cake, a cake shaped like a full moon, the appearance of rounded, showing the meaning of reunion. Later, there are square or other shapes. Moon cake wheat flour as the outer skin, there are skin pulp, mixed couverture, pastry into three categories, a variety of fillings, taste sweet, salty, sweet and salty, spicy and so on. Sandwiches and egg yolk, Nuts, bean paste, sugar, sesame, ham, green tea, fruit. In Cantonese-style moon cake moon cake, Soviet-style moon cake, the most famous Beijing-style moon cake. In addition, desktop moon cake, ham moon cake (Yunnan), pepper onions moon cake (Jiangxi), thin crisp moon cake (Hunan), melon moon cake (Sichuan), crystal moon cake (Shaanxi), three white moon cake (Heilongjiang), seafood moon cake (Shandong), chicken moon cake (Muslim style), snowy moon cake (Hong Kong), etc., are also famous. Mid-Autumn Festival to eat moon cake, and eat dumplings Dragon Boat Festival, the Lantern Festival to eat dumplings, it is the global Chinese traditional customs.