• What is wine?

    Date: 19-07-2017

    Wine is fermented fruit juice. Fermentation occurs when microorganisms called yeast metabolize the sugars in fruit juice, creating alcohol and flavor compounds. The yeast may occur naturally in the environment, or the winemaker might add commercially produced yeast

  • A short history of wine

    Date: 19-07-2017

    The oldest evidence of winemaking comes to us from the Caucasus region and the Middle East (where the present-day countries of Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Iran and Iraq intersect).

  • Wine Grape Species

    Date: 19-07-2017

    Like all plants, we classify grapevines according to the system of taxonomy laid out by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in 1753. Grapevines belong to the order called Vitales, the family called Vitaceae and the genus Vitis. The genus Vitis has about sixty different species

  • Red Wine Grapes and Their Personalities

    Date: 19-07-2017

    We use the terms “black grapes” and “red grapes” interchangeably. In either case, these grapes produce what is commonly termed “red” wine. Red grapes vary immensely as to the climates they prefer, the acidity they bring to the table, an

  • White Wine Grapes and Their Personalities

    Date: 19-07-2017

    What we call “white” wine grapes actually run from green to golden in color. We call these grapes and the wine they produce “white” for convenience. No prizes will be awarded for guessing which one we start with. a. Chardonnay: The Lady

  • Wine Environments

    Date: 19-07-2017

    a. Grapevines Need Temperate Climates Vines need long, warm periods during crucial flowering, fruit set and ripening periods After harvest, vines need to go dormant over the winter, so they can regenerate and marshal their nutrients for the next se

  • Vine Diseases and Pests

    Date: 19-07-2017

    We have already covered phylloxera. Phylloxera might be the worst scourge ever to hit wine grapes, but it is by no means the only one. Vines are subject to attack from pests that range from deer to birds. We cover here the major fungal vine disease, several bacterial dise

  • Wine Chemistry

    Date: 19-07-2017

    Oxidation Oxidation occurs when a chemical compound loses electrons. Oxidation is considered beneficial in some winemaking circumstances, but excessive exposure to oxygen under the wrong circumstances can cause a wine to spoil. Oxidation sets in as

  • World Wine Regions

    Date: 19-07-2017

    North America The United States     Prohibition of alcoholic beverages was repealed in the United States in 1933, but the effects are still felt—in federal wine labeling laws, in the marketplace, in the con

  • The Wine Regions of Italy

    Date: 17-07-2017

    Campania signifies that we are coming to the south of Italy. Centered around the great city of Naples, Campania is Italy’s most densely populated area. Campania’s wine roots pre-date Rome, stretching back to the Greek colonial period, where th

  • The Wine Regions of Italy

    Date: 17-07-2017

     Puglia is often called the heel of the Italian boot, but if we take a look we see that this large region is more fittingly called the heel and the spur. North-south oriented Puglia looks out to the Adriatic Sea on its entire eastern length and to th

  • The Wine Regions of Italy

    Date: 17-07-2017

    Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean, a continuous producer of wine for over 2500 years. For years known just for sweet Marsala and Moscato wines, and high volume dry wines both red and white, richly diverse Sicily is making a name for itself

  • World Wine Regions

    Date: 17-07-2017

    Portugal has lost its fair shares of wars, but one war it has most definitely won: the war against the French grapes. French grapes pushed their international way into Spain, Italy, Germany, Greece—all of Europe, except isolated backward-looking Portugal. As a resul

  • World Wine Regions

    Date: 17-07-2017

    Germany has thirteen regions, all closely associated with rivers. Eleven are in the old West Germany, two in the old German Democratic Republic.  German wines are poorly understood. A few key points should clear this up.  For years, oceans of sweet

  • World Wine Regions Europe Spain

    Date: 17-07-2017

    The Phoenicians—before the Greeks—brought winemaking to Spain by 1000 BC. Spain has extremely varied climates and terrains, from the arid central plateau, northeast to the sea spray of Rias Baixas in Galicia, south to the sunny climes of Andalucía. Alth

  • World Wine Regions Europe Luxembourg

    Date: 17-07-2017

    Wine has been produced in Luxembourg continuously since Roman times. Luxembourg wine production is centered in the country’s southeast, where it is largely in the hands of cooperatives who sell the wine under the name of "Vinsmoselle". The cooperatives operate a spa

  • World Wine Regions

    Date: 17-07-2017

    Austrian wine has changed a great deal over the last few decades—for the better. The improvement took place because of a terrible event, the Austrian diethylene glycol wine scandal of 1985. German wine laboratories discovered that some Austrian producers had added d

  • World Wine Regions Europe England

    Date: 17-07-2017

    The English have always taken wine quite seriously, even if they have not been able to grow many vines because of their high latitude and wet rainy climate. Global warming is helping them, however. Growers are choosing their varieties with care, opting for climate-appropr

  • World Wine Regions

    Date: 17-07-2017

    The landlocked European country of Switzerland is more than just watches, army knives, banks, and world-class tennis stars: it produces wine, and much extremely fine wine. The Swiss drink a great deal of wine, encompassing nearly all the wine they themselves produce and m

  • World Wine Regions

    Date: 17-07-2017

    The Czech Republic is better known for beer than wine. Some wine is made in the western area of Bohemia, but 95% of wine production takes place in the southwest, Moravia, adjacent to the Austrian wine producing region of Niederösterreich. &nbs